Psychosocial Intervention Psychosocial Intervention
Psychosocial Intervention 26 (2017) 55-62 - Vol. 26 No.1 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2015.12.001
Menores extranjeros no acompañados en España: necesidades y modelos de intervención
Asylum-seeking children in Spain: Needs and intervention models
Amaia Bravoa,, , Iriana Santos-Gonzálezb
a Universidad de Oviedo, España
b Universidad de Cantabria, España
Received 17 October 2015, Accepted 19 December 2015
Resumen

La numerosa llegada de menores extranjeros no acompañados (MENA) a nuestro país durante los últimos 20años ha supuesto un reto para los sistemas de protección, que se han visto en la necesidad de adaptar sus procedimientos a las necesidades concretas de estos adolescentes. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir las características y necesidades de los MENA acogidos en España, así como el proceso de intervención llevado a cabo en comparación con otros países. Para ello, se examinaron los documentos publicados en cada territorio, se realizaron entrevistas individuales (n=42) y grupales (n=8) con los adolescentes, así como con profesionales (n=68) de 9 territorios. Se describen las similitudes y diferencias en cada una de las fases del proceso de atención a la vez que se señalan las específicas necesidades de estos adolescentes en cuanto a educación, salud, alojamiento, transición a la vida adulta y apoyo social. Se concluye la existencia de importantes diferencias en el modelo de actuación de cada región, la creación de programas y servicios específicamente dirigidos a estos adolescentes que han favorecido su adaptación al contexto de acogida, así como la necesidad de profundizar en el apoyo a la transición a la vida adulta y en la atención a su malestar emocional.

Keywords
  • Menores extranjeros no acompañados
  • Protección a la infancia
  • Bienestar infantil
  • Migración juvenil
  • Modelos de intervención
Abstract

The arrival of numerous unaccompanied asylum seeker children (UASC) over the past 20years has been a challenge for the child welfare system in Spain. Child care resources and professionals have made a big effort to adapt services and procedures to the specific needs of these adolescents. This paper aims to describe the characteristics and needs of the UASC welcomed in Spain, and the intervention process carried out, in comparison with other countries. The documents published in each territory were examined, and individual interviews (n=42) and group interviews (n=8) were conducted with adolescents and professionals (n=68) in 9 territories. The similarities and differences in each of the phases of care, as well as the specific needs of these adolescents in education, health, housing, transition to adulthood and social support, are described. There are significant differences in the model of intervention in each region, and in the creation of programs and services to assist these adolescents with adaptation to the host country. Further support for the transition to adulthood and attention to their emotional distress should be included in service provision.

Keywords
  • Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children
  • Child protection
  • Child welfare
  • Migrant children
  • Intervention models
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Copyright © 2015. Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid
Psychosocial Intervention 26 (2017) 55-62 - Vol. 26 No.1 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2015.12.001