Psychosocial Intervention Psychosocial Intervention
Psychosocial Intervention 24 (2015) 71-8 - Vol. 24 No.2 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2015.05.001
El perdón ante transgresiones en las relaciones interpersonales
Forgiveness for transgressions in interpersonal relationships
Ana Mª Beltrán-Morillas, , Inmaculada Valor-Segura, Francisca Expósito
Departamento de Psicología Social, Facultad de Psicología, Centro de Investigación Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Universidad de Granada, Granada, España
Received 21 April 2015, Accepted 30 May 2015
Resumen

Mediante el perdón, las personas reducen las respuestas negativas hacia sus transgresores, encontrándose más motivadas a mostrar comportamientos positivos en su lugar. Esta investigación pretende aproximarse al fenómeno del perdón a través de dos estudios. En el primero participaron 101 estudiantes universitarios, teniendo como objetivo examinar los diferentes tipos de transgresiones en función del tipo de relación (amistad vs. pareja) y del género. En el segundo estudio (n = 201 participantes de la población general) se estudió la influencia del género, así como aspectos emocionales y motivacionales en la concesión de perdón ante una transgresión de infidelidad. Los resultados del primer estudio mostraron que la infidelidad es la transgresión que se percibe como más grave. En el segundo, los resultados mostraron que ante este tipo de transgresión, las mujeres perciben las consecuencias como más graves, tienen sentimientos más negativos, mayor empatía y mayor dependencia que los hombres. Asimismo, la empatía en hombres, así como la dependencia en mujeres, predicen una mayor venganza, traduciéndose en un menor perdón. Finalmente, los resultados mostraron que tanto en hombres como en mujeres, el afecto negativo media la relación entre la gravedad de la transgresión y la motivación de venganza como consecuencia de la infidelidad.

Keywords
  • Perdón
  • Transgresión
  • Género
  • Infidelidad
Abstract

Through forgiveness, people reduce negative responses toward their transgressors, and are more motivated to show positive behaviors instead. Two studies were performed with the aim to approach the phenomenon of forgiveness. The first study, in which 101 university students participated, aimed to examine the different types of transgressions depending on the type of relationship (friendship vs. couple) and gender. In the second study (n = 201 participants from general population), we studied the influence of gender, emotional, and motivational variables on forgiveness after infidelity betrayal. Results of the first study showed that infidelity is perceived as the most serious transgression. In the second study, results showed that in unfaithful transgression, women perceived the consequences as more serious, felt more negative emotions and showed greater empathy and dependency than men. Also, empathy in men as well as dependency in women were found to predict revenge, and resulted in less forgiveness. Finally, results showed that in both men and women, the negative affect mediated the relationship between severity of transgression and motivation to retaliate as a result of infidelity.

Keywords
  • Forgiveness
  • Betrayal
  • Gender
  • Infidelity
NOTICE Undefined offset: 1 (includes_ws/librerias/utilidades.php[294])
NOTICE Undefined index: url (includes_ws/librerias/utilidades.php[295])
NOTICE Undefined index: pii (includes_ws/librerias/utilidades.php[310])
Agradecimientos

Agradecemos a los revisores, y especialmente al editor asociado, por sus útiles y constructivos comentarios sobre el manuscrito.

Referencias
Abrahamson et al., 2012
I. Abrahamson,R. Hussain,A. Khan,M.J. Schofield
What helps couples rebuild their relationship after infidelity?
Journal of Family Issues, 33 (2012), pp. 1494-1519
Argyle and Henderson, 1985
M. Argyle,M. Henderson
The anatomy of relationships
Penguin Books, (1985)
Boira et al., 2013
S. Boira,P. Carbajosa,C. Marcuello
La violencia en la pareja desde tres perspectivas: Víctimas, agresores y profesionales
Psychological Intervention, 22 (2013), pp. 125-133
Bornstein, 1993
R.F. Bornstein
The Dependent Personality
Guilford Press, (1993)
Carlo et al., 1999
G. Carlo,M. Raffaelli,D.J. Laible,K.A. Meyer
Why are girls less physically aggressive than boys?. Personality and Parenting Mediators of Physical Aggression
Sex Roles, 40 (1999), pp. 711-729
Davis, 1980
M.H. Davis
A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy
JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10 (1980),
Dillow et al., 2011
M.R. Dillow,C.C. Malachowski,M. Brann,K. Weber
An experimental examination of the effects of communicative infidelity motives on communication and relational outcomes in romantic relationships
Western Journal of Communication, 75 (2011), pp. 473-499
Fehr, 1996
B. Fehr
Friendship processes
Sage Publications, (1996)
Fehr et al., 2010
R. Fehr,M.J. Gelfand,M. Nag
The road to forgiveness: A meta-analytic synthesis of its situational and dispositional correlates
Psychological Bulletin, 136 (2010), pp. 894-914 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019993
Fincham, 2000
F.D. Fincham
The kiss of porcupines: From attributing responsibility to forgiving
Personal Relationships, 7 (2000), pp. 1-23
Finkel et al., 2002
E.J. Finkel,C.E. Rusbult,M. Kumashiro,P.A. Hannon
Dealing with betrayal in close relationships: Does commitment promote forgiveness?
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28 (2002), pp. 956-974
Fitness, 2001
J. Fitness
Betrayal, rejection, revenge and forgiveness: An interpersonal script approach
pp. 73-103
Flanagan, 1954
J.C. Flanagan
The critical incident technique
Psychological Bulletin, 51 (1954), pp. 327-358
Green et al., 2012
M. Green,N. DeCourville,S. Sadava
Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship
Journal of Social Psychology, 152 (2012), pp. 288-307 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2011.603767
Gordon and Baucom, 1998
K.C. Gordon,D.H. Baucom
Understanding betrayals in marriage: A synthesized model of forgiveness
Family Process, 37 (1998), pp. 425-449
Guzmán, 2010
M. Guzmán
El perdón en las relaciones cercanas: Conceptualización desde una perspectiva Psicológica e Implicancias para la Práctica Clínica
Psykhe, 19 (2010), pp. 19-30
Karremans and Van Lange, 2004
J.C. Karremans,P.A.M. Van Lange
Back to caring after being hurt: The role of forgiveness
European Journal of Social Psychology, 34 (2004), pp. 207-227
Hayes, 2013
A.F. Hayes
Introduction to mediation, moderation and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach
The Guilford Press, (2013)
Lutjen et al., 2012
L.J. Lutjen,N.R. Silton,K.J. Flannelly
Religion, forgiveness, hostility and health: A structural equation analysis
Journal of Religion and Health, 51 (2012), pp. 468-478 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-011-9511-7
Maio et al., 2008
G.R. Maio,G. Thomas,F.D. Fincham,K. Carnelley
Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationships
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 (2008), pp. 307-319 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.307
McCullough, 2001
M.E. McCullough
Forgiveness: Who does it and how do they do it?
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10 (2001), pp. 194-197
McCullough et al., 1998
M.E. McCullough,K.C. Rachal,S.J. Sandage,E.L. Worthington,S.W. Brown,T.L. Hight
Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships
II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 (1998), pp. 1586-1603
McCullough et al., 1997
M.E. McCullough,E.L. Worthington,K.C. Rachal
Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 (1997), pp. 321-336
Merolla, 2008
A.J. Merolla
Communicating Forgiveness in Friendships and Dating Relationships
Communication Studies, 59 (2008), pp. 114-131
Mestre et al., 2004
V. Mestre,M.D. Frías,P. Samper
La medida de la empatía: análisis del Interpersonal Reactivity Index
Psicothema, 16 (2004), pp. 255-260
Montero and León, 2007
I. Montero,O.G. León
A guide for naming research studies in Psychology
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7 (2007), pp. 847-862
Moreno and Fernández, 2011
J.E. Moreno,C. Fernández
La empatía y la flexibilidad ante situaciones de agravio
Revista de Filosofía y Psicología, 6 (2011), pp. 41-55
Paleari et al., 2005
G. Paleari,C. Regalia,F.D. Fincham
Marital quality, forgiveness, empathy, and rumination: A longitudinal analysis
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31 (2005), pp. 368-378 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271597
Pelucci et al., 2013
S. Pelucci,C. Regalia,F.G. Paleari,F.D. Fincham
Self-forgiveness in romantic relationships: It matters to both of us
Journal of Family Psychology, 27 (2013), pp. 541-549 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032897
Pettijoh and Ndoni, 2013
T.F. I.I. Pettijoh,A. Ndoni
Imagined infidelity scenario forgiveness and distress: The role of method of discovery and specific cheating behavior
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 1 (2013), pp. 11-14
Preacher and Hayes, 2004
K.J. Preacher,A.F. Hayes
SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models
Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, y Computers, 34 (2004), pp. 717-731
Prieto-Ursúa et al., 2012
M. Prieto-Ursúa,M.J. Carrasco,V. Cagigal de Gregorio,E. Gismero,M.P. Martínez,I. Muñoz
El perdón como herramienta clínica en Terapia Individual y de Pareja
Clínica Contemporánea, 3 (2012), pp. 121-134
Pronk et al., 2010
T.M. Pronk,J.C. Karremans,G. Overbeek,A.A. Vermulst,D.H.J. Wigboldus
What it takes to forgive: When and why executive functioning facilitates forgiveness
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98 (2010), pp. 119-131 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017875
Riek, 2010
B.M. Riek
Transgressions, guilt and forgiveness: A model of seeking forgiveness
Journal of Psychology and Theology, 38 (2010), pp. 246-254
Rusbult and Van Lange, 1996
C.E. Rusbult,P.A.M. Van Lange
Interdependence processes, Social Psychology
pp. 564-596
Sandín et al., 1999
B. Sandín,P. Chorot,L. Lostao,T.E. Joiner,M.A. Santed,R.M. Valiente
Escala PANAS de Afecto Positivo y Negativo: Validación factorial y convergencia transcultural
Psicothema, 11 (1999), pp. 37-51
Schumann, 2012
K. Schumann
Does love mean never having to say you’re sorry?
Associations between relationship satisfaction, perceived apology sincerity, and forgiveness, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29 (2012), pp. 997-1010
Schumman and Ross, 2010
K. Schumman,M. Ross
Why women apology more than men: Gender differences in thresholds for perceiving offensive behavior
Psychological Science, 20 (2010), pp. 1-7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02253.x
Struthers et al., 2008
C.W. Struthers,J. Eaton,A.G. Santelli,M. Uchiyama,N. Shirvani
The effects of attributions of intent and apology on forgiveness: When saying sorry may not help the story
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44 (2008), pp. 983-992
Tafoya and Spitzberg, 2007
M.A. Tafoya,B.H. Spitzberg
The dark side of infidelity: Its nature, prevalence, and communicative functions
2nd ed., pp. 201-242
Valor-Segura et al., 2009
I. Valor-Segura,F. Expósito,M. Moya
Desarrollo y validación de la versión española de la
Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS). International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9 (2009), pp. 479-500
Valor-Segura et al., 2010
I. Valor-Segura,F. Expósito,M. Moya
Emociones poderosas y no poderosas ante conflictos de pareja: Diferencias de género
Intervención Psicosocial, 19 (2010), pp. 129-134
Valor-Segura et al., 2014a
I. Valor-Segura,F. Expósito,M. Moya
Gender, Dependency and Guilt in Intimate Relationship Conflict Among Spanish Couples
Sex Roles, 70 (2014), pp. 496-505
Valor-Segura et al., 2014b
I. Valor-Segura,F. Expósito,M. Moya,E. Kluwer
Don’t leave me: the effect of dependency and emotions in relationships conflict
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44 (2014), pp. 579-587
Waldron and Kelley, 2005
V. Waldron,D. Kelley
Forgiveness as a response to relational transgression
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22 (2005), pp. 723-742
Williams et al., 2012
C. Williams,D.S. Richardson,G.S. Hammock,A.S. Janit
Perceptions of physical and psychological aggression in close relationships: A review
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17 (2012), pp. 489-494
Wiseman and Duck, 1995
J.P. Wiseman,S. Duck
Having and managing enemies: A very challenging relationship
pp. 43-72
Witvliet et al., 2014
Witvliet, C., Mohr, A.J., Hinman, N. y Knoll, R. (2014). Transforming or Restraining rumination: The impact of compassionate reappraisal versus emotion suppression on empathy, forgiveness, and affective psychophysiology. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 248-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.941381.
Worthington and Scherer, 2004
E.L. Worthington,M. Scherer
Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses
Psychology and Health, 19 (2004), pp. 385-405
WARNING Invalid argument supplied for foreach() (includes_ws/librerias/html/item.php[1199])
Psychosocial Intervention 24 (2015) 71-8 - Vol. 24 No.2 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2015.05.001