Psychosocial Intervention Psychosocial Intervention
Psychosocial Intervention 26 (2017) 139-46 - Vol. 26 No.3 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2017.02.001
Estrategias de persuasión en grooming online de menores: un análisis cualitativo con agresores en prisión
Persuasion strategies in online grooming of children: A qualitative analysis with sex offenders in prison
Patricia de Santisteban, , Manuel Gámez-Guadix
Departamento de Psicología Biológica y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España
Received 24 January 2017, Accepted 20 February 2017

El grooming online (proceso en el cual un adulto se gana la confianza de un menor con el objetivo de obtener algún tipo de contacto sexual) es un problema social serio. Actualmente se sabe poco sobre las estrategias específicas que los adultos usan para manipular y persuadir a los menores con el fin de lograr interacciones sexuales con ellos. En este estudio con metodología cualitativa se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a 12 hombres condenados por grooming online (edades entre 21 y 51 años; M=38, DT=10.32). También se comparó la información obtenida con el análisis de los hechos probados de sus condenas. Los resultados mostraron que las principales estrategias de manipulación utilizadas por los agresores fueron el engaño, la corrupción (p. ej., ofrecer dinero o regalos a los menores a cambio de sexo), la implicación emocional del menor y la agresión. Estas estrategias tratan de involucrar o coaccionar activamente al menor en el proceso abusivo para evitar la revelación. Los programas de prevención podrían beneficiarse enormemente de incorporar los hallazgos empíricos sobre las tácticas y estrategias que los agresores utilizan para manipular y explotar sexualmente a los menores.

  • Grooming online
  • Abuso de menores
  • Agresores online
  • Persuasión
  • Vulnerabilidad

Online grooming (a process in which an adult gains the trust of a child with a view to making sexual contact of some type) is a serious social problem. Little is currently known about the specific strategies used by adults to manipulate and persuade children to engage in sexual interaction with them. For this study using qualitative methodology we undertook in-depth interviews with 12 men convicted for online grooming (aged between 21 and 51 years; M=38, SD=10.32). The information obtained was compared with an analysis of the proven facts of their convictions. The results show that the principal manipulation strategies used by offenders are deception, corruption (e.g. offering money or gifts to children in return for sex), emotionally engaging the child, and aggression. These strategies attempt to actively involve or coerce the child in the abusive process to prevent disclosure. Prevention programmes could benefit enormously by incorporating empirical findings about the tactics and strategies used by offenders to manipulate and sexually exploit children.

  • Online grooming
  • Child abuse
  • Online offenders
  • Persuasion
  • Vulnerability
NOTICE Undefined offset: 1 (includes_ws/librerias/utilidades.php[294])
NOTICE Undefined index: url (includes_ws/librerias/utilidades.php[295])
NOTICE Undefined index: pii (includes_ws/librerias/utilidades.php[310])
Baker et al., 1992
C. Baker,J. Wuest,P.N. Stern
Method slurring: The grounded theory/phenomenology example
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17 (1992), pp. 1355-1360
Black et al., 2015
P.J. Black,M. Wollis,M. Woodworth,J.T. Hancock
A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world
Child Abuse & Neglect, 44 (2015), pp. 140-149
Chamarz, 2006
Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through cualitative analysis. California. Sage.
Corbin y Strauss, 1990
J. Corbin,A. Strauss
Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons and evaluative criteria
Qualitative sociology, 13 (1990), pp. 3-21
Gámez-Guadix y Gini, 2016
M. Gámez-Guadix,G. Gini
Individual and class justification of cyberbullying and cyberbullying perpetration: A longitudinal analysis among adolescents
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 44 (2016), pp. 81-89
Gámez-Guadix et al., 2015
M. Gámez-Guadix,G. Gini,E. Calvete
Stability of cyberbullying victimization among adolescents: Prevalence and association with bully-victim status and psychosocial adjustment
Computers in Human Behaviors, 53 (2015), pp. 140-148
Gámez-Guadix et al., 2017
M. Gámez-Guadix,P. de Santisteban,S. Resett
Sexting among Spanish adolescents: Prevalence and personality profiles
Glaser y Strauss, 1967
B.G. Glaser,A.L. Strauss
The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research
Aldine de Gruyter, (1967)
Hernández Sampieri et al., 2014
Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C. B. L., Valencia, M. D. P. M., Torres, S. y Paulina, C. (2014). Metodología de la investigación (No. 303.1). McGraw-Hill Education.
Jones et al., 2012
L. Jones,K. Mitchell,D. Finkelhor
Trends in youth Inernet victimization: Findings from three youth Internet safety surveys 2000-2010
Journal of Adolescent Health, 50 (2012), pp. 179-186
Katz, 2013
C. Katz
Internet-related child sexual abuse: What children tell us in their testimonies
Children and Youth Services Review, 35 (2013), pp. 1536-1542
Kloess et al., 2014
J.A. Kloess,A.R. Beech,L. Harkins
Online child sexual exploitation prevalence, process, and offender characteristics
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15 (2014), pp. 126-139
Leander et al., 2008
L. Leander,S.Å. Christianson,P.A. Granhag
Internet-initiated sexual abuse: Adolescent victims’ reports about on-and off-line sexual activities
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22 (2008), pp. 1260-1274
Livingstone y Smith, 2014
S. Livingstone,P. Smith
Annual Research Review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: The nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55 (2014), pp. 635-654
Malesky, 2007
L.A. Malesky Jr.
Predatory online behavior: Modus operandi of convicted sex offenders in identifying potential victims and contacting minors over the Internet
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 16 (2007), pp. 23-32
Marcum, 2007
C. Marcum
Interpreting the intentions of Internet predators: An examination of online predatory behavior
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 16 (2007), pp. 99-114
Mitchell et al., 2001
K.J. Mitchell,D. Finkelhor,J. Wolak
Risk factors for and impact of online sexual solicitation of youth
Mitchell et al., 2007a
K.J. Mitchell,D. Finkelhor,J. Wolak
Online requests for sexual pictures from youth: Risk factors and incident characteristics
Journal of Adolescent Health, 41 (2007), pp. 196-203
Mitchell et al., 2007b
K.J. Mitchell,D. Finkelhor,J. Wolak
Youth Internet users at risk for the most serious online sexual solicitations
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32 (2007), pp. 532-537
Montiel et al., 2016
I. Montiel,E. Carbonell,N. Pereda
Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample
Child Abuse & Neglect, 52 (2016), pp. 123-134
O’Connell, 2003
O’Connell, R. (2003). A typology of cyber sexploitation and online grooming practices. Preston: Cyberspace Research Unit, University of Central Lancashire.
Quayle y Jones, 2011
E. Quayle,T. Jones
Sexualized images of children on the Internet
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23 (2011), pp. 7-21
Quayle et al., 2014
E. Quayle,S. Allegro,L. Hutton,M. Sheath,L. Lööf
Rapid skill acquisition and online sexual grooming of children
Computers in Human Behavior, 39 (2014), pp. 368-375
Quayle y Cooper, 2015
E. Quayle,K. Cooper
The role of child sexual abuse images in coercive and non-coercive relationships with adolescents: A thematic review of the literature
Child & Youth Services, 36 (2015), pp. 312-328 2015.1092840
Smith, 2012
P.K. Smith
Cyberbullying and cyber aggression
Handbook of school violence and school safety: International research and practice, 2nd ed., pp. 93-103
Suler, 2004
J. Suler
The online disinhibition effect
CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7 (2004), pp. 321-326
Webster et al., 2012
Webster, S., Davidson, J., Bifulco, A., Gottschalk, P., Caretti, V., Pham, T., et al. (2012). Final report. European Online Grooming Project [consultado 12 Sep 2012]. Disponible en:
Whittle et al., 2013
H. Whittle,C. Hamilton-Giachritsis,A. Beech,G. Collings
A review of online grooming: Characteristics and concerns
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18 (2013), pp. 62-70
Williams et al., 2013
R. Williams,I.A. Elliott,A.R. Beech
Identifying sexual grooming themes used by internet sex offenders
Deviant Behavior, 34 (2013), pp. 135-152
Wolak et al., 2010
J. Wolak,D. Finkelhor,K.J. Mitchell,M.L. Ybarra
Online ‘predators’ and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment
Psychology of Violence, 1 (2010), pp. 13-35
Wolak y Finkelhor, 2013
J. Wolak,D. Finkelhor
Are crimes by online predators different from crimes by sex offenders who know youth in-person?
Journal of Adolescent Health, 53 (2013), pp. 736-741
WARNING Invalid argument supplied for foreach() (includes_ws/librerias/html/item.php[1199])
Copyright © 2017. Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid
Psychosocial Intervention 26 (2017) 139-46 - Vol. 26 No.3 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2017.02.001