Psychosocial Intervention Psychosocial Intervention
Psychosocial Intervention 26 (2017) 19-27 - Vol. 26 No.1 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2016.08.001
Factores dinámicos en el comportamiento de delincuentes juveniles con perfil de ajuste social. Un estudio de reincidencia
Dynamic factors in the behavior of young offenders with social adjustment. A study of recidivism
José Javier Navarro-Péreza,, , Enrique Pastor-Sellerb
a Departamento de Trabajo Social y Servicios Sociales, Universidad de Valencia, España
b Departamento de Sociología y Trabajo Social, Universidad de Murcia, España
Received 23 October 2015, Accepted 10 August 2016
Resumen

Este estudio tiene por objeto evaluar el riesgo de reincidencia, analizando el impacto de los factores dinámicos en adolescentes en conflicto con la ley (ACL). Para ello, se evalúa una muestra de 157 ACL con perfil de ajuste social mediante el instrumento para la evaluación del riesgo de violencia de adolescentes Structured Assesment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), además de otras técnicas de análisis cualitativo que triangulan el proceso empírico. Por un lado, destaca que la amplia estructura relacional y la vinculación intermitente con redes formales e informales de aprendizaje y empleo de que disponen los ACL con perfil de ajuste estiman un buen nivel de ajuste futuro y una baja reincidencia delictiva. Por otro lado, la escasa autonomía para resolver problemas y la impulsividad en la gestión de dificultades amplían el riesgo de reincidencia delictiva. Un foco de interés reside en las relaciones e influencias que el ACL establece con su entorno, para evitar prácticas de riesgo o someterse a ellas. Se incide en las actividades cotidianas del ACL, pudiendo estas condicionar su ajuste social.

Keywords
  • Delincuencia juvenil
  • Socialización
  • Reincidencia
  • Factores dinámicos
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to assess the risk of recidivism by analysing the impact of dynamic factors on adolescents in conflict with the law (ACLs). To this end we evaluate the social adjustment of a sample of 157 ACLs, using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth tool (SAVRY) along with other qualitative analysis techniques to triangulate the empirical process. The extensive structure of relationships and occasional links that these ACLs have with formal and informal learning and employment networks point to a good level of adjustment in the future and a low level of recidivism. However, the risk of recidivism is increased by their limited ability to solve problems and their impulsiveness in dealing with difficulties. A special area of interest lies in the relationships and influences that ACLs form with their surroundings in order to avoid or indulge in high-risk practices. These have an effect on their everyday activities and can determine their level of social adjustment.

Keywords
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Socialization
  • Recidivism
  • Dynamic factors
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Anexo 1

El SAVRY contiene 24 factores de riesgo (desde S1 hasta S24) y 6 factores de protección (desde P1 hasta P6). Los factores se distribuyen de la siguiente manera: 10 factores que pertenecen al pasado del sujeto (factores estáticos desde S1 hasta S10), 6 factores sociales/contextuales (dinámicos, desde S11 hasta S16) y 8 factores individuales (dinámicos, desde S17 hasta S24). Además, cuenta con 6 factores de protección (dinámicos, desde P1 hasta P6).

Factores de riesgo históricos  Violencia previa (S1)
Inicio temprano de la violencia (S2)
Historia de actos delictivos (S3)
Fracaso de intervenciones anteriores (S4)
Intentos de autolesión o suicidio previo (S5)
Exposición a la violencia en el hogar (S6)
Historia de maltrato infantil (S7)
Separación temprana de cuidadores (S8)
Delincuencia de los padres o cuidadores (S9)
Bajo rendimiento en la escuela (S10) 
Factores de riesgo sociales/contextuales  Delincuencia en el grupo de iguales (S11)
Rechazo de grupo de iguales (S12)
Estrés e incapacidad para enfrentar dificultades (S13)
Escasa habilidad de los padres para educar (S14)
Falta de apoyo social (S15)
Entorno marginal (S16) 
Factores de riesgo individuales  Asunción de riesgos (S17)
Impulsividad (S18)
Problemas de consumo de sustancias (S19)
Problemas de manejo del enfado (S20)
Baja empatía (S21)
Hiperactividad (S22)
Baja colaboración en intervenciones/actitud negativa (S23)
Bajo interés/compromiso escolar o laboral (S24) 
Factores de protección  Implicación prosocial (P1)
Apoyo social fuerte (P2)
Vínculos con adulto prosocial (P3)
Actitud positiva hacia intervenciones y autoridad (P4)
Fuerte compromiso con la escuela o el trabajo (P5)
Resiliencia (P6) 

Fuente: elaboración propia.

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Psychosocial Intervention 26 (2017) 19-27 - Vol. 26 No.1 DOI: 10.1016/j.psi.2016.08.001